Ferrari have threatened to quit Formula 1 at the end of the season if the sport continues with plans to introduce an optional Ł40m budget cap from 2010.
"No F1 in 2010 if the rules do not change," said a statement. "Ferrari does not intend to register cars for the 2010 F1 world championship."
Ferrari fear the evolution of a two-tier championship, between those teams who adopt the cap and those who do not.
The teams will discuss the plans with FIA chief Max Mosley in the next week.
And Ferrari, in a statement, insist their announcement is not simply posturing: "The same rules for all teams, stability of regulations, the continuity of... endeavours to methodically and progressively reduce costs, and governance of Formula 1 are priorities for the future.
"If these indispensable principles are not respected, and if the regulations decided for 2010 will not change, Ferrari does not intend to enter its cars."
The announcement will put to the test Mosley's resolve after he claimed earlier this month that F1 could live without Ferrari, the sport's most famous, most successful, and longest-tenured team.
"The sport could survive without Ferrari," he said. "It would be very sad. It is the Italian national team."
F1 supremo Bernie Ecclestone, meanwhile, dismissed claims Ferrari could quit F1 on Tuesday, telling the Times: "Ferrari are not stupid. They don't want to leave Formula 1 and we don't want to lose them, so we'll get to grips with it."
However, Toyota and Red Bull have also already threatened not to enter next year's championship unless the new rules change.
And Ferrari have criticised the FIA's decision-making process, stating: "The rules of governance that have contributed to the development of F1 over the last 25 years have been disregarded, as have the binding contractual obligations between Ferrari and the FIA itself regarding the stability of the regulations.
"The same rules for all teams, stability of regulations, the continuity of the F1 Teams' Association's (FOTA) endeavours to methodically and progressively reduce costs, and governance of Formula 1 are the priorities for the future.
"If these indispensable principles are not respected and if the regulations adopted for 2010 will not change, then Ferrari do not intend to enter our cars in the next Formula 1 World Championship."
The FIA wants to introduce an optional Ł40m budget cap next year to encourage new teams to enter.
The plan would allow capped teams to operate with far greater technical freedom than those continuing with unlimited budgets.
However, Ferrari's president Luca di Montezemolo, head of FOTA, has warned it would create a two-tier championship that could be "fundamentally unfair and perhaps even biased".
The FIA has set a deadline of 29 May for teams wishing to compete in 2010 to enter and state whether they want a cap or not.
But, BBC Five Live Formula 1 correspondent David Croft fully expects Ferrari to line up on the grid in 2010, despite the threat.
"I would be amazed if Ferrari aren't racing in 2010," he said, "I think this is just the opening of a series of discussions that will take place between the sports most historic team and the governing body.
"It's inconceivable that we would have Formula 1 without Ferrari. Mosley says the sport doesn't need them, but I think a lot of people would beg to disagree."
Still, F1 drivers disagree with Mosley's claim that the sport could survive without Ferrari.
World champion Lewis Hamilton said he "could not imagine" F1 without Ferrari while Renault's Fernando Alonso said it was "impossible" for it to happen.
And BMW Sauber's Nick Heidfeld was left bemused by Mosley's comments.
He said: "I thought that people were looking and listening to the fans worldwide and Ferrari is obviously the biggest name in F1 with many supporters and has been there since the very beginning, so they belong in F1."
Ferrari, the sport's oldest and most successful team, also threatened a pull-out in October if proposals for a standard engine for all teams went ahead.